One difference between the “ends” of the spectrum is that only high-energy radiation (x-rays and gamma rays) has the ability to ionize matter. photon In general, it is the radiographer’s role to be familiar with the different types of radiation to which patients may be exposed and to be able to answer questions and educate patients. radiowaves The energy of a photon E and the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation associated with it are related in the following way: \[E=h \upsilon \label{2}\] The phenomena such as interference, diffraction, and polarization can only be explained when light is treated as a wave whereas the phenomena such as the photoelectric effect, line spectra, and the production and scattering of x rays demonstrate the particle nature of light. For example, sound is a form of mechanical energy. This phenomenon is called wave-particle duality, which is essentially the idea that there are two equally correct ways to describe electromagnetic radiation. Students may wonder why it is necessary for the radiographer to understand the entire spectrum of radiation. Charge on Electron; 2.1.4. • Explain wave-particle duality as it applies to the electromagnetic spectrum. Because the speed of EM waves predicted by the wave equation coincided with the measured speed of light, Maxwell concluded that light itself is an EM wave. Radiowaves are used in conjunction with a magnetic field in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to create images of the body. The higher the intensity of light shining on a metal, the more packets, or particles, the metal absorbs and the more electrons are emitted. In this theory he explained that all electromagnetic radiation is very similar in that it has no mass, carries energy in waves as electric and magnetic disturbances in space, and travels at the speed of light (Figure 3-1). • Differentiate between electromagnetic and particulate radiation. So does electromagnetic radiation consist of waves or particles? Electrons emitted in this manner are called photoelectrons. • Describe the nature of particulate radiation. More specifically, the radiographer should be able to explain to a patient the nature of ionizing radiation as well as any risks and benefits, and should be an advocate for the patient in such discussions with other professionals. The constant, h, which is named for Planck, is a mathematical value used to calculate photon energies based on frequency. Conceptually we can talk about electromagnetic radiation based on its wave characteristics of velocity, amplitude, wavelength, and frequency. Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Google+ (Opens in new window) • Explain wave-particle duality as it applies to the electromagnetic spectrum. Maxwell's equations were confirmed by Heinrich Hertz through experiments with radio waves. Only photons whose energy exceeds a threshold value will cause emission of photoelectrons. Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy that originates from the atom. DE Broglie, in his PhD thesis, proposed that if wave (light) has particle (quantum) nature, on the basis of natural symmetry, a particle must have the wave associated with it. electromagnetic spectrum So we know that light has properties of waves. Since the energy of a particle of light depends on its frequency, an incoming particle with a high enough frequency will have a high enough energy to liberate an electron from a metal. Chemistry Journal 2.2 Electromagnetic Radiation Driving Question: How does the nature of particles, waves, and energy explain phenomena such as lightning? • Explain the relationship between energy and frequency of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation exhibits properties of a wave or a particle depending on its energy and in some cases its environment. Visible light and other types of electromagnetic radiation are usually described as waves. But, at the beginning of the 20th century, scientists had begun to question the w… Blackbody Radiation. Electromagnetic energy differs from mechanical energy in that it does not require a medium in which to travel. Both ends of the electromagnetic spectrum are used in medical imaging. 2.0.Introduction; 2.1. The wave-particle duality of photons and electromagnetic radiation is enshrined in an equation first proposed by the German physicist Max Planck (1858 to 1947). unit of wavelength is metre (m). Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy that originates from the atom. • Discuss the energy, wavelength, and frequency of each member of the electromagnetic spectrum and how these characteristics affect its behavior in interacting with matter. Objectives color) of radiant energy emitted by a blackbody depends on only its temperature, not its surface or composition. The radiographer should consider him or herself as a resource for the public and should be able to dispel any myths or misconceptions about medical imaging in general. This question can be answered both broadly and specifically. • Discuss the energy, wavelength, and frequency of each member of the electromagnetic spectrum and how these characteristics affect its behavior in interacting with matter. For a photon: P = h v c. Therefore, h p = c v = λ. His work is considered by many to be one of the greatest advances of physics. Besides, photons assume an essential role in the electromagnetic propagation of energy. The ranges of energy, frequency, and wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum are continuous—that is, one constituent blends into the next (Figure 3-2). infrared light More specifically, the radiographer should be able to explain to a patient the, In the latter half of the 19th century, the physicist James Maxwell developed his electromagnetic theory, significantly advancing the world of physics. As previously stated, the velocity for all electromagnetic radiation is the same: 3 × 108 m/s. That is, electromagnetic radiations are emitted when changes in atoms occur, such as when electrons undergo orbital transitions or atomic nuclei emit excess energy to regain stability. Students may wonder why it is necessary for the radiographer to understand the entire spectrum of radiation. FIGURE 3-1 Electromagnetic Radiation.Electromagnetic radiation is energy traveling at the speed of light in waves as an electric and magnetic disturbance in space. Calculate the wavelength or frequency of electromagnetic radiation. This property is explained in this chapter. The phenomenon is studied in condensed matter physics, and solid state and quantum chemistry to draw inferences about the properties of atoms, molecules and solids. Radiowaves are used in conjunction with a magnetic field in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to create images of the body. Critical Concept 3-2 Differentiate between x-rays and gamma rays and the rest of the electromagnetic spectrum. This phenomenon is called wave-particle duality, which is essentially the idea that there are two equally correct ways to describe electromagnetic radiation. Log In or. 06.11 Hess’s Law and Enthalpies for Different Types of Reactions. For example, sound is a form of mechanical energy. The American chemist Gilbert Lewis later coined the term photon for light quanta. The S.I. Contrarily, wave nature is prominent when seen in the field of propagation of light. The members of the electromagnetic spectrum from lowest energy to highest are radiowaves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, and gamma rays. Apply coupon WELCOME21 at checkout and avail 21% discount on your order. This question about the nature of electromagnetic radiation was debated by scientists for more than two centuries, starting in the 1600s. ultraviolet light That is, electromagnetic radiations are emitted when changes in atoms occur, such as when electrons undergo orbital transitions or atomic nuclei emit excess energy to regain stability. As previously stated, the velocity for all electromagnetic radiation is the same: 3 × 108 m/s. I would like to throw some light to the history and developements of what led to the failure of the wave nature of light. Sometimes, however, electromagnetic radiation seems to behave like discrete, or separate, particles rather than waves. Key Terms The energy is measured in electron volts (eV). 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