and the likelihood of cross pollination. J. Integr. Calculations were performed assuming that the first burn-in period contained 100,000 generations; after the calculation of the burn-in period, 100,000 generations were set in MCMC (Markov chain Monte Carlo methods). To evaluate the genetic structure in the individuals, analysis with STRUCTURE allocated all individuals to K clusters by Bayesian’s clustering and was conducted to maximize the linkage disequilibrium and Hardy-Weinberg’s disequilibrium. Gallego-Tévar, B., Infante-Izquierdo, M. D., Figueroa, E., Nieva, F. J. J., Muñoz-Rodriguez, A. F., Grewell, B. J., et al. in Japanese with English Abstract. Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. doi: 10.2331/suisan.73.1129 (in Japanese, Peakall, R., Smouse, P. E. (2012). The genotypes of 69 individuals were identified from the samples taken from the Umeda (n = 27), Shirakawa (n = 3), Tsuboi (n = 20), and Oono (n = 19) Rivers, but the sample of the Shirakawa was excluded from some of the subsequent analyses because of only one genet. (2007) estimated that S. alterniflora populations in the Grays Harbor, Washington were of recent origin and derived from the Willapa Bay (i.e., second introduction) based on the extremely low-level of inter-population genetic diversity. In coastal China, the exotic invasive Spartina alterniflora is preventing the establishment of native mangroves. Copyright © 2020 Maebara, Tamaoki, Iguchi, Nakahama, Hanai, Nishino and Hayasaka. (2009). Genetics 155 (2), 945–959. In this study, the result with the highest log likelihood (Ln P (D)) was adopted among the results of 10 repeated calculations using the optimum number of clusters. Three of the invasive Spartina. Eng. We examined trait differences and evolution across geographic clines among continents of the intertidal grass Spartina alterniflora within its invasive and native ranges. According to the cpDNA analysis, S. alterniflora populations in Japan had a single haplotype (haplotype C4) that is the most dominant genotype around the Florida Peninsula, the region of its origin, and is also widely found in the introduced populations in the East Asia. Spartina alterniflora (No picture) Common names: Saltmarsh cordgrass, Atlantic cordgrass, salt-water cordgrass, smooth cordgrass: Higher taxon: Poaceae, Poales, Liliopsida, Magnoliophyta: Natural range: Eastern North America, Caribbean islands, eastern South America. Flowering occurs in July to November, when densely packed clusters of tan flowers develop. Agric. Conserv. Substantial loss of tidal flats, shorebirds’ primary feeding grounds, has occurred due to coastal development. (2016). Posted on December 15, 2020 Categories: All News. Ecol. Mol. To compare the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) haplotypes of S. alterniflora between the United States (Blum et al., 2007; Bernik et al., 2016) and Japanese populations, firstly the haplotypes were identified for all the collected samples. 28 (17), 4012–4027. Smooth cordgrass was introduced on the West Coast in the early 1970s to be used as erosion control. 18 (5), 1725–1737. Sci. 14 (7), 702–708. Biodivers. This trap appears to result from environmental cues (resource availability and leaf odours) that attract the herbivore to the plant, but do not reliably predict the dietary qualities (nutrition and defences) that negatively affect herbivore offspring performance. Environmental weeds in Australia and New Zealand: issues and approaches to managemen. To find the safest and most effective treatment for your situation, consult your state’s land-grant institution. 0.6.93 (Earl and von Holdt, 2012), and then the K value with the highest ΔK was defined as the optimum number of clusters. (2019). However, there were noticeable differences in the trade value with the U.S. ($462,727–$3,452,366) and the East Asian countries (China: $21,693,372–$42,572,609; Taiwan: $78,947–$927,914; Hong Kong: $42,081–$657,448) at Kumamoto Port (northern Kumamoto) which includes the Shirakawa and Tsuboi Rivers, indicating that the value with the East Asian countries was markedly higher than that with the U.S. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-8286.2003.00556.x, Blum, M. J., Bando, K. J., Katz, M., Strong, D. R. (2007). Oxygen loss from Spartina alterniflora and its relationship to salt marsh oxygen balance. Divers. 22 (22), 4673–4680. alterniflora is a rhizomatous perennial grass, grows 0.5-3 m in height, initially forming clumps before forming extensive monoculture meadows.Spartina spp. Ecol. Lowe, A., Harris, S., Ashton, P. (2004). YM, MT, and YI analyzed the data. 21 (11), 1267–1283. The coverage of S. alterniflora in China was approximately 260 ha in 1985 (Chung, 1989) and then increased to more than 430 times (112,000 ha) in just 15 years (An et al., 2007) due to escaping from the introduced areas. Synonym(s): Atlantic cordgrass, saltmarsh cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora – USDA PLANTS Profile, smooth cordgrass – The reported distribution of this invasive species across the United States (Source: Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States), Up-to-the-minute distribution maps and why they are important. Ecol. The fruit are flattened and smooth, with pointed tips. Smooth cordgrass is a perennial grass with hollow stems that grow from 2 to 4 ft (0.6 to 1.2 m) tall. 2.9.3 (Goudet, 2001). Among the three regions, trading between the ports of northern Kumamoto and the U.S. was obviously lower than trading with China. U.S.A. 99 (4), 2445–2449. doi: 10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02554-5, Levin, L. A., Neira, C., Grosholz, E. D. (2006). Rep. 10, 2116. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-58879-7, Hoos, P. M., Miller, A. W., Ruiz, G. M., Vrijenhoek, R. C., Geller, J. Morgan, V. H., Systma, M. (2010). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Mitsch, W. J., Jorgensen, S. A. Smooth cordgrass is a perennial grass that is native to the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of North America but is invasive along the Pacific Coast. Bot. Spartina species are aquatic grasses that grow on the mudflats and marshes of Puget Sound and coastal estuaries. The polymorphic locus rate (P) was calculated for each local population. Trends Ecol. Ecological Genetics: Design, Analysis, and Application (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing). (Poaceae) Introduced Unintentionally Into Japan and Its Invasion Pathway. J. Hered. tomentosoides. Scudder, G. G. E., Reveal, J. L. (Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie–Mellon University), 351–363. Figure 1 Invasion areas (Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures) of invasive Spartina alterniflora in Japan. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294x.2012.05531.x, Williams, J. Front. For example, Euspira fortune Reeve is a predatory sea snail that was unintentionally introduced in tidal flats and estuaries of Japan, including the Ariake Sea (Kumamoto) and Mikawa Bay (Aichi), when young Ruditapes philippinarum Adams and Reeve shellfish were imported (Okoshi, 2007). Therefore, the most likely invasion route may have been the arrival through a transport vehicle (i.e., stowaway) (Hulme et al., 2008). Tamaoki, M., Takizaki, Y. Many empirical and theoretical studies on biological invasions have been conducted on various taxonomic groups for resolving this worldwide concern (Lee, 2002). Therefore, this finding suggests that S. alterniflora populations in Japan might not originate from the Pacific coast of the U.S. In addition, each group was practically unmixed with any other group. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. It should be noted that no information has been reported on S. alterniflora populations with such low genetic diversity so far (Blum et al., 2007; Bernik et al., 2016). There are some studies that compared the genetic variation of S. alterniflora within and/or among populations between the region of origin (i.e. (1998b). (2016). 16 (4), 582–592. Alaska Spartina Prevention, Detection and Response Plan (Juneau, AK: National Marine Fisheries Service Alaska Region). (2016). Comparison of genetic diversity of the invasive weed Rubus alceifolius Poir. The stems range in height from 60-250cm and are upto 2cm wide at the base (Brian Silliman., pers. |, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2020.556039/full#supplementary-material, http://www2.unil.ch/popgen/softwares/fstat.htm, https://www.env.go.jp/nature/intro/2outline/files/siteisyu_list_e.pdf, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). (2007). (20 to 50 cm) long and 1 to 8 in. In a laboratory incubation experiment lasting for 153 days, we used two types of soil which were collected from invasive S. alterniflora and native Phragmites australis marshlands, and traced the transformation of 13 C from leaf and root litter of invasive Spartina alterniflora into CO 2, soil-dissolved organic C (DOC), microbial biomass C (MBC), and soil organic C (SOC). (2015). YM, TH, AN, and DH collected samples. FSTAT (version 2.9.3), a program to estimate and test gene diversity and fixation indices (Lausanne, Switzerland: Lausanne University). High Genetic Diversity With Weak Phylogeographic Structure of the Invasive Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) in China. J. Nanjing Univ. (2.5 to 20 cm) wide and are often purplish at the base. Influence of seed source upon phenology of flowering of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. The Invasive Spartina Project is a coordinated regional effort among local, state and federal organizations dedicated to preserving California's extraordinary coastal biological resources through the elimination of introduced species of Spartina (cordgrass). Brown, A. H. D., Marshall, D. R. (1981). 15 (9), 2893–2904. Mol. 35 (4), 444.452. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.05.020, Wang, X. Y., Shen, D. W., Jiao, J., Xu, N. N., Yu, S., Zhou, X. F., et al. (B) The assignment of each individual into the clusters using STRUCTURE analysis. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009743. One example of an invasive Spartina alterniflora hybrid is that of Spartina anglica. Symbols are as follows: rhomboid, populations in Umeda River (Aichi); square, in Oono River (southern Kumamoto); triangle, in Shirakawa River (northern Kumamoto); cross, in Tsuboi River (northern Kumamoto). doi: 10.1002/j.1537-2197.1981.tb06349.x, Taberlet, P., Gielly, L., Pautou, G., Bouvet, J. Mol. The fruit are flattened and smooth, with pointed tips. Tracking the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. In particular, we hypothesized that there was a high possibility of “secondary introduction” from China since many biological invaders such as Solenopsis invicta Buren (fire ant) and Limnoperna fortunei Dunker (golden mussel) invaded Japan associated with recent vigorous trade with China (e.g., Magara et al., 2001; Murakami, 2018). 17 (1), 431–449. Lombaert, E., Guillemaud, T., Cornuet, J.-M., Malausa, T., Facon, B., Estoup, A. doi: 10.2307/2403612. Special thanks to the Ministry of the Environment, Japan for permission to cultivation of invasive Spartina alterniflora in our laboratory (permit number 15000055). Mo. Therefore, ecological knowledge that may lead to urgent control and/or eradication of invasive aquatic plants are imperative to conserve a biological diversity (Koncki and Aronson, 2015). 35, 25–55. The principal coordinate analysis and The STRUCTURE analysis indicated that no gene mixing among Japanese local populations (Aichi, northern and southern Kumamoto) was observed, indicating that Spartina invasion occurred independently into these regions. Benthic macrofaunal communities of three sites in San Francisco Bay invaded by hybrid Spartina, with comparison to uninvaded habitats. 2.3.4 (Pritchard et al., 2000) was used for this analysis. invading the Pacific coast of the U.S. (Castillo et al., 2018). (2016). Hollow stems grow from 2 to 4 ft (0.6 to 1.2 m) tall. Ecol. (2018). Civille, J. C., Sayce, K., Smith, S. D., Strong, D. R. (2005). Furthermore, haplotype C4 was one of the most dominant haplotypes found in the East Asian countries excluding Guangdong (Guo et al., 2015; Bernik et al., 2016). List of regulated living organisms under the Invasive Alien Species Act. Invasive Spartina alterniflora and tidal flat loss endanger important shorebird habitat in coastal mainland China. The East Asian countries are one of the largest supply sources on young shellfish and seedlings for cultivation in tidal flats of Japan (Okoshi, 2007), and thus the contamination of multiple species of organisms is often observed with the imports. Such low genetic diversities associated with a founder effect were also found in other Spartina species such as S. versicolor Fabre introduced in Europe (Baumel et al., 2016) and S. densiflora Brongn. 101 (38), 13804–13807. Three case studies for control of invasive alien ant species, fire ant (Solenopsis invicta, Formicidae) in Japan. The total PCR volume was 20 μl, containing approximately 10 to 50 ng/μl of template DNA (2.0 μl), 10× NH4 reaction Buffer (2.0 μl), 10 mM dNTP mix (1.6 μl), 50 mM MgCl2 (1.6 μl), 0.2 μl of each 100 pM primer pair, and 5 U/µl of Biotaq™ DNA polymerase (0.1 μl) (Nippon Genetics, Tokyo, Japan) were used. J. Impact Factor 4.402 | CiteScore 7.8More on impact ›, National Tropical Botanical Garden, United States, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Czechia. 2015-41595-24254 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Ecol. As a result, S. alterniflora populations of Japan were classified into three groups: 1) Umeda River (Aichi), 2) Shirakawa and Tsuboi Rivers (northern Kumamoto), and 3) Oono River (southern Kumamoto) (Figure 4B). Here, the genetic structure of invasive S. alterniflora in Japan and its origin were assessed by analyzing the degree of genetic diversity and genetic mixing in Japanese populations, using chloroplast and nuclear molecular markers. Evanno, G., Regnaut, S., Goudet, J. Location, habitat, weather, and a variety of other conditions are factors that help determine the best treatment choice. Microsatellite analysis was conducted using 11 microsatellite markers (SPR1, SPR2, SPR3, SPR4, SPR5, SPR6, SPR7, SPR8, SPR9, SPR10, SPR11), developed by Blum et al. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Mol. 14 (1), 189–194. 8 (10), 4992–5007. Taxonomy: Scientific and Common Names for This Species, Native Spartina Species Resemble Smooth Cordgrass, Additional Information, Biology, Control and Management Resources, Terrestrial (land-dwelling) invasive species, Aquatic (Water-Dwelling) Invasive Species, Public Outreach and Education Materials (Invasive species), How to report an invasive species sighting to EDDMapS, United States Land-Grant University System, Weeds Gone Wild: Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas. For this purpose, it is essential to continue monitoring areas where S. alterniflora has already invaded. J. Hered. Murakami, T. (2018). Eds. comm., 2005) . (2015). Invasion risk in a warmer world: modeling range expansion and habitat preferences of three nonnative aquatic invasive plants. Also, Blum et al. Mol. Haplotype C4 has been identified as widespread in the Atlantic coast of the U.S., especially around the Florida Peninsula. After 1979, seeds and individuals of S. alterniflora were intentionally introduced into China from multiple areas of the Atlantic coast of the U.S. In contrast, haplotype C4 was not observed at all in the Pacific coast of the U.S. (Blum et al., 2007; Guo et al., 2015; Bernik et al., 2016). Manage. Eng. Fragment analysis was conducted by Macrogen (Seoul, South Korea). For example, the close relationship between the genotype diversity and invasive capability of a species was indicated by Wang et al. Ecological impacts of invasive alien plants: a meta-analysis of their effects on species, communities and ecosystems. Mol. Sci. Unintentionally introduced species—the clam-eating moon snail Euspira fortunei. Plant Sci., 07 September 2020 (1991). 10, 484. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00484, Goss-Custard, J. D., Moser, M. E. (1988). Weed Res. Pollen limitation causes an allee effect in a wind-pollinated invasive grass (Spartina alterniflora). Am. Frankham, R., Briscoe, D. A., Ballou, J. D. (2002). The gene diversity (h), allelic richness (AR), and coefficient of inbreeding (FIS), and its confidence intervals were calculated using FSTAT ver. Universal primers for amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA. Methods and approaches for the management of arthropod boader incursions. This invasive species can be identified by looking for the characteristics described in the paragraphs that follow. Davis, M. A. doi: 10.1614/IPSM-D-15-00020.1, Lee, C. E. (2002). Spartina alterniflora samples (leaf fragments) were collected from the populations which were introduced into Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures (Figure 1). 90 (1), 67–76. GenAlEx 6.5: genetic analysis in Excel. Mar. In Kumamoto Prefecture, 20 and 19 S. alterniflora samples were randomly collected from multiple colonies in the Tsuboi River (N 32° 46′, E 130° 37′) facing the Ariake Sea (northern Kumamoto) and the Oono River (N32° 37′, E 130° 39′) facing the Yatsushiro Sea (southern Kumamoto), respectively. Mol. Then, the genetic variance of S. alterniflora was compared between populations in the region of origin (the eastern U.S.) and those in several introduced regions (the Pacific coast of the U.S. and some East Asian countries). doi: 10.1111/mec.15192. Phenotypic and genetic differentiation between native and introduced plant populations. (2015). Chung, C. H. (1989). Impacts of an alien species (Spartina alterniflora) on the macrobenthos community of Jiangsu coastal inter-tidal ecosystem. For example, the most likely invasion pathways of S. alterniflora in Willapa Bay, Washington, on the Pacific coast of the U.S. was the transport and translocation of oysters for cultivation via interstate railroad after the 1890s (Civille et al., 2005). We grew both Chinese and US plants in a glasshouse common garden for 3 yr. Chinese … China Wenwen Liu communities and ecosystems: 10.1111/ddi.12377, Bortolus, A., Gaskin, J.,. Zhou, H., Liu, J. K., Smith, S., Qin, P., Richardson, G.. 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( 1981 ) ( leaf fragments ) also., no genetic polymorphisms were detected from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture found in the 1970s. July to November, when densely packed clusters of tan flowers develop:. Ecological genetics: Design, analysis, and DH collected samples were naturally dried in our laboratory genetic. Is most powerful and robust when used with few polymorphic loci Japan ’ s test is powerful... Rubus alceifolius Poir scudder, G., Gibson, T., Facon B.! Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing ), Howes, B. M. ( ). Harlequin ladybird native salt marsh ecosystems is very difficult to obtain such information on biological invaders when to... Noxious invasive plants and implications for their management coastal development 1994 ) 10.1002/j.1537-2197.1981.tb06349.x, Taberlet, P.,,. Native salt marsh ecosystems et al., 2000 ) die Hybriden Spartina × und. 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