Thus, in general, if w is the day wage and Yield: 193.38 bushels per acre. The winter wheat yields averaged 50 bushels to the acre; second highest average yield in SD recorded history. Wheat yields from the non-EU farms ranged from 1.6t/ha (AUVic) to 5.4t/ha (Ukraine). Terry Wilcox – Third Place Spring Wheat Irrigated. NASS publications cover a wide range of subjects, from traditional crops, such as corn and wheat, to specialties, such as mushrooms and flowers; from calves born to hogs slaughtered; from agricultural prices to land in farms. To come up with recommendations that are relevant to today’s yield potential, we had to revisit something as basic as nitrogen fertilization. 1). Punjab continues to lead the country in per hectare yield of wheat this year. The data used by the FAO is taken from Defra’s final yield surveys but at the moment it covers only individual years up to the 2014 harvest. Average additional economic costs of $83 to $98 per acre for corn, $55 to $62 per acre for wheat, and $106 to $125 per acre for soybeans are incurred from organic production. Let's just conclude that in Carolingian times, in Western Europe, an acre of land gave 4-6 bushels (100-150 kg) of grain. Source: An analysis of state average corn yield history data provided by the USDA NASS indicates there are two causes of corn yield (in bushel per acre) variations at the regional level in the United States. Three winners topped 200 bushels per acre … This product provides information on Alberta Major Crops - Yield, over a fifty-year period. Price Madison, Idaho. Cost of fertilization may extend up to Rs.2200 averagely. Three winners topped 200 bushels per acre (… This product provides information on Alberta Wheat Crop by Type - Area, Yield and Production, over a ten-year period. equals the gross return per acre. (DTN) -- It was another record-setting year for the National Wheat Yield Contest, which announced its 2019 winners Tuesday. Average farm yields ranged from approximately 30.3 bushels per acre (2.04 metric tons per hectare) for the typical farm in Australia to 138.8 … Then you can access your favorite statistics via the star in the header. Please do not hesitate to contact me. facts. Over the years, North Dakota farmer Jon Wert grows spring wheat that tops 100 bushels per acre. Total wheat production 152,163,000 bushels. Among common wheat, the main varieties are spring and winter, hard and soft, and red and white. This figure is based on the combination of two datasets: data from 1929-1955 is based on figures in Engler and del Pozo (2013), which has been combined with UN Food and Agricultural Organization statistics from 1961 onwards. The mean yield of contest entrants was 80.59 bushels per acre, down from the 2019 average of 83.18 bushels per acre. January 10, 2020. The holders of this record also broke this record in 2017. Phillip Gross examines some wheat in his Warden, Washington, wheat fields, one of which yielded 202.5 bushels per acre, securing the high yield award … Statista. Lollato stresses that today’s measurement represents a snapshot in time, assuming good weather from now to harvest. That’s not the same as the yield potential we have now with current varieties. These cost estimates are based on the farm survey yield and cost data. 2 nd dose- 2/3rd of N&K at first node stage.. 3 rd dose – 55 days after sowing.Application of potash is necessary. Let's just conclude that in Carolingian times, in Western Europe, an acre of land gave 4-6 bushels (100-150 kg) of grain. If it took 4 days to reap an acre pieceworkers would earn only I.25s. The National Corn Yield Contest … Pingback: Best Way to Plant Watermelon- 2020 Watermelon cultivation techniques May 1, 2020. Please review the copyright information in the series notes before sharing. It’s been a wild ride for wheat yields! Wheat yields from the non-EU farms ranged from 1.6t/ha (AUVic) to 5.4t/ha (Ukraine). This publication gives the first estimate of the quantity of wheat and barley produced in the UK from the 2019 harvest. The gross yield per hectare for wheat amounted to 1.2 billion kg in 2019, representing an increase of 17.6 percent on the previous year. The annual rate of yield improvement, which heretofore had been about zero, increased to about 0.8 bushels per acre per year from about 1937 through about 1955 (Fig. Adding miscellaneous income (straw, crop insurance, e.g.) "Wheat yield per harvested acre in the U.S. from 2000 to 2019 (in bushels)." “That 65 bushel per acre yield estimate needs a rain to get there,” he says. Wheat yield of Germany increased from 38,877 hg per ha in 1969 to 66,737 hg per ha in 2018 growing at an average annual rate of 1.46%. This feature is limited to our corporate solutions. Number of Bushels per Acre Yield for All Wheat, Oats, Barley, Flaxseed, Canola, and All Rye are included. Register in seconds and access exclusive features. The best approximation for future yield is to use either trend-line yield for a state or Actual Production History (APH) for a farm. The tables are calculated on a per acre basis. Cost and return estimates are reported for the United States and major production regions for corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, grain sorghum, rice, peanuts, oats, barley, milk, hogs, and cow-calf. Among the top ten wheat-producing states, Punjab is at number one with a yield of 4,179 kg per hectare. Average yields are estimated as 46 bushels per acre for hard red spring wheat, 39 bushel per acre for durum, 86 bushel per acre for oats, 67 bushel per acre for barley, 37 bushel per acre for canola, 39 bushel per acre for peas and 1,475 pounds per acre for lentil. They projected an average hard red spring wheat yield of 49.9 bushels per acre, exceeding the tour’s 2014 forecast of 48.6 bu. Figure 1 illustrates average wheat yield per hectare for each typical farm. In Idaho, yields could be close to records because of “excellent” winter and … Due to milling losses, the caloric value of wheat when turned into flour is about 80% of this value, so that ends up being 1.78 M kcal. December 1 condition 59 percent. and its previous five-year average of 45.2 bu. With CWRS Neepawa wheat in the early 1970s, we had a potential of maybe 45 to 50 bushels per acre maximum yield in Manitoba studies. Cost of intercultural operations: Weed management is very important in wheat as they decrease the final yield. Wheat yield per harvested acre in the U.S. from 2000 to 2019 (in bushels) [Graph]. The technology trend causes an upward slope of yield over time. USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Information. The yield, price, and cost differences were used to estimate the per acre returns to organic versus conventional production for each crop. 1961 - 2017. The first graph shows the five year rolling average yield for UK wheat; hence, the 2016 average yield includes the yields achieved from 2012 to 2016. NASS publications cover a wide range of subjects, from traditional crops, such as corn and wheat, to specialties, such as mushrooms and flowers; from calves born to hogs slaughtered; from agricultural prices to land in farms. Mike and Bob Shearer of Twin Lane Farm took top honors with 100.69 bushels per acre. The graph below shows the US national average winter wheat yield in bushels per acre as reported by the USDA NASS. Harvested wheat grain that enters trade is classified according to grain properties for the purposes of the commodity markets. Common and durum wheat are the main types. January 15, 2021. In 1950/51, the percentage of harvested acres was 92 percent. National Bureau of Economic Research, Release: Then you will be able to mark statistics as favourites and use personal statistics alerts. The yield of wheat per acre for 10 districts of a state is as under.Calculate Standard Deviation and Coefficient Variation. Series from NBER Macrohistory Database. National Bureau of Economic Research, They knew that wheat would yield 250 to 300 liters of grain per acre - Barley would bring 700-720 liters per acre. Are you interested in testing our corporate solutions? Please contact us to get started with full access to dossiers, forecasts, studies and international data. per day for daywork. The highest wheat yield is 17.398 tonnes/ha (38356.02 lbs/ha or 258.70 bushels/acre) and was harvested from 8.6353 ha (21.33 acres) by Eric Watson at Paddock 15a, Wakanui, Canterbury, New Zealand, on 17 February 2020. Cereal yield (kg per hectare) Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site. retrieved from FRED, Since it isn't clear whether the absolute yield increased or merely the seed-to-seed ratio. and over 1 Mio. Mike and Bob Shearer of Twin Lane Farm took top honors with 100.69 bushels per acre. per day, though they would only earn 2S. Tags Agriculture Statistics Yearbook Barley Canola Flaxseed Major Crops Number of Bushels per Acre Oats Rye Wheat. Graph and download economic data for Wheat Crop, Yield Per Acre for United States (A0137GUSA254NNBR) from 1866 to 1951 about crop, wheat, yield, interest rate, interest, rate, and USA. Quick Analysis with our professional Research Service: Content Marketing & Information Design for your projects: Per capita consumption of wheat flour in the U.S. 2000-2018, Total U.S. wheat area planted and harvested 2000-2019, Wheat production value in the U.S. 2000-2019. State Corn Yield Per Acre: Causes of Variations. In, US Department of Agriculture. Average wheat yield for the farms in 2013 to 2016 was 66.8 bushels per acre (4.49 metric tons per hectare). YIELDS PER ACRE IN ENGLISH AGRICULTURE, I250-I860 449 reap an acre of wheat must be close to 2.5 man-days. According to the report, the U.S. wheat yield per harvested acre amounted to about 51.7 bushels in 2019 Wheat yield per harvested acre in the U.S. … ROCKVILLE, Md. Starting in 1950 and continuing through 1984, the 10-year average harvested acres percentage was between 88 and 90 percent. The yield patterns result in the following observations and thoughts: Winter wheat yields in both states have trended higher since 1960. Releases from National Bureau of Economic Research, More It might as well have been that the average Carolingian plot gave 8-12 bushels per acre, and half of it was kept as seed. Agricultural land (% of land area) Forest area (% of land area) Cereal production (metric tons) Agricultural land (sq. In the last four years, the New England farmer is among the top growers in the National Wheat Yield Contest, sponsored by the National Wheat Foundation. The federal agency estimates 500,000 harvested acres in … However, the USDA-NASS yield data show little to no evidence that yield trends of the past 25 years have deviated from the long-term 1.9 bushels per acre per year trend line (Fig. Leading U.S. states for wheat yield per harvested acre 2017-2019 Total U.S. rye plantings and harvestings 2000-2019 Leading U.S. states by area planted with wheat 2017-2019 Corporate solution including all features. ROCKVILLE, Md. Bushels, Not Seasonally Adjusted, Frequency:  Overview and forecasts on trending topics, Key figures and rankings about brands and companies, Consumer insights and preferences in various industries, Detailed information about political and social topics, All key figures about regions and countries, Everything you need to know about Consumer Goods, Identify market potentials of the digital future, Technology Market Outlook Chart. 18.6 percent more than the previous year. You only have access to basic statistics. This can not be undone. Updated. Yield. Data in this graph are copyrighted. Record yields were expected in 2013, with the average per acre approaching 48 bushels. Figure 1 illustrates average wheat yield per hectare for each typical farm. (DTN) -- It was another record-setting year for the National Wheat Yield Contest, which announced its 2019 winners Tuesday. Share Details. Profit from additional features by authenticating your Admin account. Annual, Source: U.S. Department Of Agriculture, Bureau Of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Statistics, 1937; 1939; 1941; 1942; 1950; And Crop Reporting Board, Crop Production, 1951 Annual Summary, December 1951; Crop Production, Mimeographed Release.This NBER data series a01037g appears on the NBER website in Chapter 1 at http://www.nber.org/databases/macrohistory/contents/chapter01.html.NBER Indicator: a01037g. This makes the Mediterranean very difficult to average over all. Learn more about how Statista can support your business. … Among the top ten wheat-producing states, Punjab is at number one with a yield of 4,179 kg per hectare. Please log in to access our additional functions, *Duration: 12 months, billed annually, single license, The ideal entry-level account for individual users. "Wheat Yield per Harvested Acre in The U.S. from 2000 to 2019 (in Bushels). A side point is harvested acres as a percentage of planted acres. On a positive note, average yield has increased from 16.5 bushels per acre in 1950 to about 50 bushels per acres for the last two years. Spring wheat yield is estimated at 60 bushels per acre, tied for second-highest in history. It might as well have been that the average Carolingian plot gave 8-12 bushels per acre… Yield times price equals total production return per acre. Categories > Academic Data > NBER Macrohistory Database > Production of Commodities. Dry topsoil delayed seeding and prevented germination until November rains and snows were received. Although yield is only a partial gauge of performance, it reflects the available production technology across farms. Winter wheat yields in both states have trended higher since 1960. Resources. The highest wheat yield is 17.398 tonnes/ha (38356.02 lbs/ha or 258.70 bushels/acre) and was harvested from 8.6353 ha (21.33 acres) by Eric Watson at Paddock 15a, Wakanui, Canterbury, New Zealand, on 17 February 2020. Average wheat yield for the farms in 2013 to 2016 was 66.8 bushels per acre (4.49 metric tons per hectare). (January 10, 2020). State Rank: 1. US Department of Agriculture. February 3, 2017. The five-year average yields of wheat in this analysis (Figure 2) range from 1.6 tonnes per hectare (AUVic) to 9.7t/ha (EU), with the EU standing out as the highest-yielding region with a range of 4.7 to 9.7t/ha. Graph and download economic data for Wheat Crop, Yield Per Acre for United States (A0137GUSA254NNBR) from 1866 to 1951 about crop, wheat, yield, interest rate, interest, rate, and USA. For example, a sub-40 bushels per acre yield for winter wheat in 2018 is historically unlikely but was an observed yield just 16 years ago. State Rank: 1. For Nebraska, the average yield would be: corn, 185 bushels per acre, soybeans, 58 bu/ac, wheat, 47 bu/ac, and grain sorghum (milo), 92 bu/ac, based on the past four-year state average yields. Average wheat yield for the farms in 2013 to 2016 was 66.8 bushels per acre (4.49 metric tons per hectare). Directly accessible data for 170 industries from 50 countries NBER Macrohistory Database, Units:  USDA reduced Indiana’s average winter wheat yield by one bushel from last month to 70 bushels per acre. 1948 Crop: Seeded acres 14,634,000; harvested acres 13,221,000. He produced an entry with a yield of 476.9052 bushels per acre in the conventional irrigated division. Variety: WestBred WB9668 Please authenticate by going to "My account" → "Administration". $39 per month* Average wheat yields per year in the 3rd decade of the century, sowing 135 kg/ha of seed, were around 1,200 kg/ha in Italy and Sicily, 1,710 kg/ha in Egypt, 269 kg/ha in Cyrenaica, Tunisia at 400 kg/ha, and Algeria at 540 kg/ha, Greece at 620 kg/ha. Northwest growers flourish in National Wheat Yield Contest ... His winning yield totaled 189.9 bushels per acre. The United States grew 1,304,003,000 bushels (i.e. : common (T. aestivum) durum (T. durum) spelt (T. spelta). Organic fertilizers like farmyard manure should be added during ploughing at 4-6 tonnes per acre. per day. Are you sure you want to remove this series from the graph? LAHORE: The average per acre yield of wheat crop in Punjab is stuck to 30 maunds over the years hampering government’s efforts to gradually reduce the area under wheat cultivation to make it available for growing pulses and vegetables, official statistics show. 1.3 Billion bushels) of winter wheat in 2019. Average additional economic costs of $83 to $98 per acre for corn, $55 to $62 per acre for wheat, and $106 to $125 per acre for soybeans are incurred from organic production. The first step in the analysis is to decide what yield to use in the financial projections. Punjab continues to lead the country in per hectare yield of wheat this year. The average yield of wheat per acre over the past 10 years in Canada has been around 42 bushels per acre. If it was only 2 days, then pieceworkers would earn 2.5s. Pingback: Mmodern Method of Paddy Cultivation Best in 2020 May 1, 2020. https://fred.stlouisfed.org/series/A0137GUSA254NNBR, For barley it was 0.2 billion kg, 2 percent less than in the previous year. PROVINCE WISE AVERAGE YIELD OF WHEAT FROM 1947-48 TO 2017-18 (Average yield 40 Kg. Average wheat yield for the farms in 2013 to 2016 was 66.8 bushels per acre (4.49 metric tons per hectare). The next portion of each table shows expenses. This meant 8-12 bushels (200-300 kg) of grain per acre. License: CC BY-4.0 Line Bar Map. The gross yield of ware potatoes last year stood at 3.7 billion kg, i.e. New, Figures and insights about the advertising and media world, Industry Outlook ", US Department of Agriculture, Wheat yield per harvested acre in the U.S. from 2000 to 2019 (in bushels) Statista, https://www.statista.com/statistics/190356/wheat-yield-per-harvested-acre-in-the-us-from-2000/ (last visited January 15, 2021), Wheat yield per harvested acre in the U.S. from 2000 to 2019, Stocks of wheat worldwide 2012/13-2019/2020, Global wheat flour production 2018 & 2024, Major exporting countries of wheat, flour and products 2014-2020, Major importing countries of wheat flour and products 2014-2019, Wheat production costs in the United States 2018, by type of cost, Volume of insured acres of wheat U.S. 2014-2019, U.S. annual sales of wheat for food 2010-2020, Leading U.S. states by area planted with wheat 2017-2019, Leading U.S. states by area of wheat harvested 2017-2019, Leading U.S. states for wheat yield per harvested acre 2017-2019, Top U.S. states with highest wheat production 2017-2019, Top U.S. states based on value of wheat production 2018, U.S. imports and exports of wheat 2000-2019, U.S. wheat exports by major countries of destination 2018, Value of the U.S. wheat flour exports 2014-2018, U.S. wheat flour exports by major countries of destination 2018, Value of the U.S. wheat and meslin imports 2014-2018, Value of the U.S. wheat flour imports 2014-2018, Global wheat consumption 2018/19, by country, Per capita food use of wheat worldwide 2000-2019, U.S. per capita food use of wheat 2000-2019, Wheat production in China in 2019, by region, Total area harvested for wheat production across Saudi Arabia 2012 to 2018, Total area harvested for wheat production across the UAE 2012 to 2016, Total area harvested for wheat production across Qatar 2012 to 2018, Total area harvested for wheat production across Kuwait 2012 to 2018, Total area harvested for wheat production across Oman 2012 to 2018, Total area harvested for wheat production across the GCC region by country 2018, U.S. states with the highest price per bushel of wheat 2018, Total U.S. rye plantings and harvestings 2000-2019, Monthly value of wheat and meslin exports from Luxembourg 2017-2018, Hungary: wheat and meslin import value 2015-2019, France: wheat gluten export value 2012-2017, United Kingdom (UK): Wheat imports from EU 2002/03-2017/18, Wheat yield per harvested acre in the U.S. from 2000 to 2019 (in bushels), Find your information in our database containing over 20,000 reports, Tools and Tutorials explained in our Media Centre. We find that a linear trend is the best fit to actual average yields over that period and that yields have increased at a rate of 0.32 bushel per acre per year in Kansas and 0.74 bushels per acre per year in Ohio. In 1986, the … In 2018, wheat yield for Germany was 66,737 hg per ha. In financial year 2019, the estimated yield of wheat in the south Asian country of India was approximately 3.5 thousand kilograms per hectare. Variety: WestBred WB9668 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, asked Feb 14, 2020 in Economics by Sujata01 (62.1k points) class-11; Welcome to Sarthaks eConnect: A unique platform where students can interact with teachers/experts/students to get solutions to their queries. “We will see how this year’s 105-bushel entry places,” he says following the 2020 harvest. Wheat berries have a food caloric value of about 3300 kcal per kg, so 1700 kg/ha * 3300 kcal/kg * 0.4 (conversion to acres) = 2.244 M kcal per acre. Wheat Crop, Yield Per Acre for United States [A0137GUSA254NNBR], Oats yielded 360-400 liters an acre, for 108 liters of seed. In 2020, the yield of this winter crop was estimated at 1.5 metric ton per hectare, the lowest yield in almost a decade. And 2020 was no different. According to the National Agricultural Statistics Service, the 10-year state wheat yield average for Oklahoma is about 33 bushels per acre. For the second consecutive year, Twin Lane Farm of Mount Joy is the top producer in the Pennsylvania Soybean Yield Contest. The holders of this record also broke this record in 2017. Dry topsoil during the fall was unfavorable for seeding in the western two-thirds of the State. USDA has estimated annual production costs and returns and published accounts for major field crop and livestock enterprises since 1975. No Responses to “Wheat Farming Yield per Acre and Profit” Pingback: Most Profitable Mushroom to Grow complete Best guide 2020 May 1, 2020. New, Everything you need to know about the industry development, Find studies from all around the internet. U.S. wheat production has declined from the 1981/82 record of 2.8 billion bushels to 1.8 billion bushels for the 2020/21 wheat marketing year. Accessed January 15, 2021. https://www.statista.com/statistics/190356/wheat-yield-per-harvested-acre-in-the-us-from-2000/, US Department of Agriculture. Yield: 193.38 bushels per acre. Wheat is one of the most important crops produced in Australia. St. Louis, MO 63102, http://www.nber.org/databases/macrohistory/contents/chapter01.html, More The wheat yield measurement ranged from 18 to 65 bushels per acre, with an average of 40 bushels per acre in all. Facebook: number of monthly active users worldwide 2008-2020, Smartphone market share worldwide by vendor 2009-2020, Number of apps available in leading app stores 2020, Research expert covering agriculture & FMCG, Profit from additional features with an Employee Account. Since it isn't clear whether the absolute yield increased or merely the seed-to-seed ratio. Winter Wheat Yield per Acre by State: The Top 11. Figure 1 illustrates average wheat yield per hectare for each typical farm. The 2020 wheat average yield was 49.7 bushels per acre. For the second consecutive year, Twin Lane Farm of Mount Joy is the top producer in the Pennsylvania Soybean Yield Contest. Triticum spp. The wheat yield for 1981 was a record 34.5 bushels per acres. Final yield per acre 10.5 bushels. Figure 1 illustrates average wheat yield per hectare for each typical farm. (billed annually). The five-year average yields of wheat in this analysis (Figure 2) range from 1.6 tonnes per hectare (AUVic) to 9.7t/ha (EU), with the EU standing out as the highest-yielding region with a range of 4.7 to 9.7t/ha. In the chart we see the average yields in key cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats) in Chile from 1929-2014. USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Information. Wheat cash price is currently projected at about $8 per bushel for next summer (futures price minus basis). Again, all on a per acre … In recent years, winter wheat yields have ranged from the most negative departures from trend (2015 and 2014) to the most positive departures (2016). Update, Insights into the world's most important technology markets, Advertising & Media Outlook Please create an employee account to be able to mark statistics as favorites. Total number of All Wheat, Spring Wheat, Durum Wheat and Winter Wheat's Seeded Area Acres, Bushels Yield per Acre, and tonnes of Production are included. Madison, Idaho. These variations impact US state corn production.. Each is important for creating an accurate corn yield forecast. These data reinforce the fact that currently available transgenic hybrid traits do not literally increase genetic yield potential above and beyond "normal" genetic improvements in corn hybrids. One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, Spring wheat yields averaged 41 bushels per acre; fourth highest in SD recorded history. The best yields were reported Tuesday in northwestern Saskatchewan and northeastern Alberta, where spring wheat yields averaged 59 bushels per acre, above last year’s average yield of 55 bushels per acre and the long-term average. (The higher yield for barley was partially the nature of the plant, plus the fact that you put 72 liters of seed into each acre of wheat and 144 liters per acre of barley.) Price Although yield is only a partial gauge of performance, it reflects the available production technology across farms. Relative Impact (% Change) of Management Decisions on Corn Grain Yield in WI Terry Wilcox – Third Place Spring Wheat Irrigated. Yield. Don Stall, Charlotte, Michigan, obtained the top yield in 2020’s National Corn Growers Association’s National Corn Yield Contest. Pingback: How to Grow Papaya Tree Best Technique- Green Farm May 2, 2020. The mean yield of contest entrants was 80.59 bushels per acre, down from the 2019 average of 83.18 bushels per acre. 1). The top portion of each table shows income. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; This dramatic improvement in yield potential must have seemed like a miracle to American farmers. Wheat buyers use these to decide which wheat to buy, as each class has special uses, and producers use them to decide which classes of wheat will be most profitable to cultivate. Spring wheat yield is estimated at 60 bushels per acre, tied for second-highest in history. Label. Per Acre) YEAR: Punjab: Sindh: Khyber Pakhtoonkhaw: Balochistan: PAKISTAN Both winter and spring wheat had good protein and … “ that 65 bushel per acre, tied for second-highest in history return! 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You can access your favorite statistics via the star in the Pennsylvania Soybean yield Contest US get. $ 8 per bushel for next summer ( futures price minus basis ). commodity markets ( price! In yield potential must have seemed like a miracle to American farmers the years, North farmer. And published accounts for Major field Crop and livestock enterprises since 1975 winter, hard and soft, and Rye! And returns and published accounts for Major field Crop and livestock enterprises since 1975 of performance, it the..., with an average of 83.18 bushels per acres usda reduced Indiana ’ s entry... Statistics as favourites and use personal statistics alerts Contest... His winning yield totaled 189.9 bushels acre. Of Paddy cultivation Best in 2020 wheat yield per acre history 1, 2020 performance, it reflects the available production across. Clear whether the absolute yield increased or merely the seed-to-seed ratio and winter, hard and soft, red! 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